c# - How to check for file lock?


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    No, unfortunately, and if you think about it, that information would be worthless anyway since the file could become locked the very next second (read: short timespan).

    Why specifically do you need to know if the file is locked anyway? Knowing that might give us some other way of giving you good advice.

    If your code would look like this:

    if not locked then
        open and update file
    

    Then between the two lines, another process could easily lock the file, giving you the same problem you were trying to avoid to begin with: exceptions.


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    When I faced with a similar problem, I finished with the following code:

    public bool IsFileLocked(string filePath)
    {
        try
        {
            using (File.Open(filePath, FileMode.Open)){}
        }
        catch (IOException e)
        {
            var errorCode = Marshal.GetHRForException(e) & ((1 << 16) - 1);
    
            return errorCode == 32 || errorCode == 33;
        }
    
        return false;
    }
    

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    The other answers rely on old information. This one provides a better solution.

    Long ago it was impossible to reliably get the list of processes locking a file because Windows simply did not track that information. To support the Restart Manager API, that information is now tracked. The Restart Manager API is available beginning with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 (Restart Manager: Run-time Requirements).

    I put together code that takes the path of a file and returns a List<Process> of all processes that are locking that file.

    static public class FileUtil
    {
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        struct RM_UNIQUE_PROCESS
        {
            public int dwProcessId;
            public System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComTypes.FILETIME ProcessStartTime;
        }
    
        const int RmRebootReasonNone = 0;
        const int CCH_RM_MAX_APP_NAME = 255;
        const int CCH_RM_MAX_SVC_NAME = 63;
    
        enum RM_APP_TYPE
        {
            RmUnknownApp = 0,
            RmMainWindow = 1,
            RmOtherWindow = 2,
            RmService = 3,
            RmExplorer = 4,
            RmConsole = 5,
            RmCritical = 1000
        }
    
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        struct RM_PROCESS_INFO
        {
            public RM_UNIQUE_PROCESS Process;
    
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = CCH_RM_MAX_APP_NAME + 1)]
            public string strAppName;
    
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = CCH_RM_MAX_SVC_NAME + 1)]
            public string strServiceShortName;
    
            public RM_APP_TYPE ApplicationType;
            public uint AppStatus;
            public uint TSSessionId;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
            public bool bRestartable;
        }
    
        [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        static extern int RmRegisterResources(uint pSessionHandle,
                                              UInt32 nFiles,
                                              string[] rgsFilenames,
                                              UInt32 nApplications,
                                              [In] RM_UNIQUE_PROCESS[] rgApplications,
                                              UInt32 nServices,
                                              string[] rgsServiceNames);
    
        [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
        static extern int RmStartSession(out uint pSessionHandle, int dwSessionFlags, string strSessionKey);
    
        [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll")]
        static extern int RmEndSession(uint pSessionHandle);
    
        [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll")]
        static extern int RmGetList(uint dwSessionHandle,
                                    out uint pnProcInfoNeeded,
                                    ref uint pnProcInfo,
                                    [In, Out] RM_PROCESS_INFO[] rgAffectedApps,
                                    ref uint lpdwRebootReasons);
    
        /// <summary>
        /// Find out what process(es) have a lock on the specified file.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="path">Path of the file.</param>
        /// <returns>Processes locking the file</returns>
        /// <remarks>See also:
        /// http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa373661(v=vs.85).aspx
        /// http://wyupdate.googlecode.com/svn-history/r401/trunk/frmFilesInUse.cs (no copyright in code at time of viewing)
        /// 
        /// </remarks>
        static public List<Process> WhoIsLocking(string path)
        {
            uint handle;
            string key = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
            List<Process> processes = new List<Process>();
    
            int res = RmStartSession(out handle, 0, key);
    
            if (res != 0)
                throw new Exception("Could not begin restart session.  Unable to determine file locker.");
    
            try
            {
                const int ERROR_MORE_DATA = 234;
                uint pnProcInfoNeeded = 0,
                     pnProcInfo = 0,
                     lpdwRebootReasons = RmRebootReasonNone;
    
                string[] resources = new string[] { path }; // Just checking on one resource.
    
                res = RmRegisterResources(handle, (uint)resources.Length, resources, 0, null, 0, null);
    
                if (res != 0) 
                    throw new Exception("Could not register resource.");                                    
    
                //Note: there's a race condition here -- the first call to RmGetList() returns
                //      the total number of process. However, when we call RmGetList() again to get
                //      the actual processes this number may have increased.
                res = RmGetList(handle, out pnProcInfoNeeded, ref pnProcInfo, null, ref lpdwRebootReasons);
    
                if (res == ERROR_MORE_DATA)
                {
                    // Create an array to store the process results
                    RM_PROCESS_INFO[] processInfo = new RM_PROCESS_INFO[pnProcInfoNeeded];
                    pnProcInfo = pnProcInfoNeeded;
    
                    // Get the list
                    res = RmGetList(handle, out pnProcInfoNeeded, ref pnProcInfo, processInfo, ref lpdwRebootReasons);
    
                    if (res == 0)
                    {
                        processes = new List<Process>((int)pnProcInfo);
    
                        // Enumerate all of the results and add them to the 
                        // list to be returned
                        for (int i = 0; i < pnProcInfo; i++)
                        {
                            try
                            {
                                processes.Add(Process.GetProcessById(processInfo[i].Process.dwProcessId));
                            }
                            // catch the error -- in case the process is no longer running
                            catch (ArgumentException) { }
                        }
                    }
                    else
                        throw new Exception("Could not list processes locking resource.");                    
                }
                else if (res != 0)
                    throw new Exception("Could not list processes locking resource. Failed to get size of result.");                    
            }
            finally
            {
                RmEndSession(handle);
            }
    
            return processes;
        }
    }
    

    UPDATE

    Here is another discussion with sample code on how to use the Restart Manager API.


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    You can also check if any process is using this file and show a list of programs you must close to continue like an installer does.

    public static string GetFileProcessName(string filePath)
    {
        Process[] procs = Process.GetProcesses();
        string fileName = Path.GetFileName(filePath);
    
        foreach (Process proc in procs)
        {
            if (proc.MainWindowHandle != new IntPtr(0) && !proc.HasExited)
            {
                ProcessModule[] arr = new ProcessModule[proc.Modules.Count];
    
                foreach (ProcessModule pm in proc.Modules)
                {
                    if (pm.ModuleName == fileName)
                        return proc.ProcessName;
                }
            }
        }
    
        return null;
    }
    

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    Instead of using interop you can use the .NET FileStream class methods Lock and Unlock:

    FileStream.Lock http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.io.filestream.lock.aspx

    FileStream.Unlock http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.io.filestream.unlock.aspx


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    You could call LockFile via interop on the region of file you are interested in. This will not throw an exception, if it succeeds you will have a lock on that portion of the file (which is held by your process), that lock will be held until you call UnlockFile or your process dies.


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    A variation of DixonD's excellent answer (above).

    public static bool TryOpen(string path,
                               FileMode fileMode,
                               FileAccess fileAccess,
                               FileShare fileShare,
                               TimeSpan timeout,
                               out Stream stream)
    {
        var endTime = DateTime.Now + timeout;
    
        while (DateTime.Now < endTime)
        {
            if (TryOpen(path, fileMode, fileAccess, fileShare, out stream))
                return true;
        }
    
        stream = null;
        return false;
    }
    
    public static bool TryOpen(string path,
                               FileMode fileMode,
                               FileAccess fileAccess,
                               FileShare fileShare,
                               out Stream stream)
    {
        try
        {
            stream = File.Open(path, fileMode, fileAccess, fileShare);
            return true;
        }
        catch (IOException e)
        {
            if (!FileIsLocked(e))
                throw;
    
            stream = null;
            return false;
        }
    }
    
    private const uint HRFileLocked = 0x80070020;
    private const uint HRPortionOfFileLocked = 0x80070021;
    
    private static bool FileIsLocked(IOException ioException)
    {
        var errorCode = (uint)Marshal.GetHRForException(ioException);
        return errorCode == HRFileLocked || errorCode == HRPortionOfFileLocked;
    }
    

    Usage:

    private void Sample(string filePath)
    {
        Stream stream = null;
    
        try
        {
            var timeOut = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1);
    
            if (!TryOpen(filePath,
                         FileMode.Open,
                         FileAccess.ReadWrite,
                         FileShare.ReadWrite,
                         timeOut,
                         out stream))
                return;
    
            // Use stream...
        }
        finally
        {
            if (stream != null)
                stream.Close();
        }
    }
    

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    Here's a variation of DixonD's code that adds number of seconds to wait for file to unlock, and try again:

    public bool IsFileLocked(string filePath, int secondsToWait)
    {
        bool isLocked = true;
        int i = 0;
    
        while (isLocked &&  ((i < secondsToWait) || (secondsToWait == 0)))
        {
            try
            {
                using (File.Open(filePath, FileMode.Open)) { }
                return false;
            }
            catch (IOException e)
            {
                var errorCode = Marshal.GetHRForException(e) & ((1 << 16) - 1);
                isLocked = errorCode == 32 || errorCode == 33;
                i++;
    
                if (secondsToWait !=0)
                    new System.Threading.ManualResetEvent(false).WaitOne(1000);
            }
        }
    
        return isLocked;
    }
    
    
    if (!IsFileLocked(file, 10))
    {
        ...
    }
    else
    {
        throw new Exception(...);
    }
    

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    Then between the two lines, another process could easily lock the file, giving you the same problem you were trying to avoid to begin with: exceptions.

    However, this way, you would know that the problem is temporary, and to retry later. (E.g., you could write a thread that, if encountering a lock while trying to write, keeps retrying until the lock is gone.)

    The IOException, on the other hand, is not by itself specific enough that locking is the cause of the IO failure. There could be reasons that aren't temporary.


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    You can see if the file is locked by trying to read or lock it yourself first.

    Please see my answer here for more information.


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    Same thing but in Powershell

    function Test-FileOpen
    {
        Param
        ([string]$FileToOpen)
        try
        {
            $openFile =([system.io.file]::Open($FileToOpen,[system.io.filemode]::Open))
            $open =$true
            $openFile.close()
        }
        catch
        {
            $open = $false
        }
        $open
    }
    

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    What I ended up doing is:

    internal void LoadExternalData() {
        FileStream file;
    
        if (TryOpenRead("filepath/filename", 5, out file)) {
            using (file)
            using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(file)) {
             // do something 
            }
        }
    }
    
    
    internal bool TryOpenRead(string path, int timeout, out FileStream file) {
        bool isLocked = true;
        bool condition = true;
    
        do {
            try {
                file = File.OpenRead(path);
                return true;
            }
            catch (IOException e) {
                var errorCode = Marshal.GetHRForException(e) & ((1 << 16) - 1);
                isLocked = errorCode == 32 || errorCode == 33;
                condition = (isLocked && timeout > 0);
    
                if (condition) {
                    // we only wait if the file is locked. If the exception is of any other type, there's no point on keep trying. just return false and null;
                    timeout--;
                    new System.Threading.ManualResetEvent(false).WaitOne(1000);
                }
            }
        }
        while (condition);
    
        file = null;
        return false;
    }